Science Hub

Immunology

Welcome to Nordic BioSite's Life Science Blog. Here, we will provide commentary on current events and trends in biological sciences, interesting stories about important scientists, technical tips and suggestions, and much more. Read on and learn something new.
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Click Chemistry for Biologists!

The term “click chemistry” was coined in 1999 at the 217th American Chemical Society annual meeting by Karl Barry Sharpless, a renowned chemist and professor in the Department of Chemistry at Scripps Research Institute’s California Campus.

In a key review in 2001, Sharpless used the phrase again to describe chemical reactions that are simple and high yielding, wide in scope, create only by-products that can be removed without chromatography, are stereospecific, and can be conducted in easily removable or benign solvents (1).

To Gate or Not to Gate?

Flow cytometry is one of the most intensely used techniques in immunology that creates big amount of data in short amount of time. It is possible to obtain information on cell surface markers, cellular processes such as apoptosis, and signaling pathways and much more.

To get a reliable result in flow cytometry, proper controls for accurate gating is essential. Gating means to sequester specific group of cells. This is generally a manual step performed during and after data acquisition. Even though gating can be straightforward for substantial cell groups such as CD4+ cells in PMBC samples; it can be tricky when it comes to less obvious populations, for cells that have transient marker expression or small cell populations.

In this blogpost, we want to give some tips on how to use flow cytometry controls to get more successful gating and subsequently more consistent data.

ELISA 101 Part 2: ELISA Standards

ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay) is a highly sensitive plate-based assay for in vitro quantification of soluble analytes in liquid samples. ELISA can be used to detect and/or quantify any analyte that can be bound by an antibody, such as cytokines, CD antigens, apoptosis markers, hormones, metabolites, growth factors, and more.

Mycoplasma – The Silent Enemy

Although mycoplasma is the smallest known prokaryotic organism with a tiny size range of 0.15 to 0.35 µm, it can quickly become a huge problem in cell culture labs!

Product Highlights: Immune Checkpoints

Immune checkpoints regulate when and how the immune system is activated. Their correct regulation and function are critical for maintaining a self-tolerant immune system that knows when to act (i.e. during infections, cancer) and when not to (i.e. to prevent autoimmunity). Checkpoints are maintained by a large group of cell-surface receptors, including stimulatory and inhibitory checkpoint molecules that together fine-tune immune signalling.

Immunohistochemistry Image Analysis – an Image Paints a Thousand Words

In our last article we looked at the workflow for a typical immunohistochemistry (IHC) experiment. Regardless of the tissue type under investigation, the target biomolecules, and the detection method chosen, it is necessary to apply a method to extract and analyse the information held on the stained slides. The detection method used will influence image analysis to some extent i.e. light microscopy or fluorescence microscopy is used to visualise slides after chromogenic or fluorescence detection, respectively. With the right equipment, it is possible to scan entire slides for easier viewing of entire tissue sections, further analysis and to get high-quality images in digital format for use in publications and presentations.