Proteins & Peptides

TLR9

NEW
TLR9, Mouse, antagonist (ODN2088), 1 mg

Article No

182-HC4074-02

Application

FS

Species Reactivity

mouse

Size

1 mg

Specifications

Application FS
Article No 182-HC4074-02
Description TLR9, Mouse, antagonist (ODN2088), 1 mg
Supplier Hycult biotechnology b.v
Keywords Inflammation & Cellular Damage
Notes TLR9 antagonist HC4074 is an ODN used to inhibit preferably mouse Toll-like receptor 9. ODN HC4075 can be used as control reagent. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. TLRs constitute of a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that mediate cellular responses to a large variety of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) by specific recognition of so-called ‘pathogen-associated molecular patterns’. Activation of TLRs leads to activation of NFkB-dependent and IFN regulatory factor-dependent signaling pathways. TLRs are differentially expressed among tissues and cell types by various cells of the immune system, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. They recognize and respond to molecules derived from bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens.<br>_x000D_ Whereas most TLRs are expressed on the cell surface, TLR9 is expressed intracellularly within one or more endosomal compartments and recognizes nucleic acids. TLR9 detects a rather subtle difference in the DNA of vertebrates compared with that of pathogens. Vertebrate genomic DNAs have mostly methylated CpG dinucleotides where bacterial and viral DNAs have unmethylated CpG dinucleotides. TLR9 undergoes relocation from endoplasmic reticulum to CpG-ODN-containing endosomes. In these endosomes TLR9 becomes a functional receptor after proteolytic cleavage. TLR9 exists as a preformed homodimer and CpG-ODN binding promotes its conformational change, bringing the cytoplasmic TIR-like domains close to each other. This allows a recruitment of the key adapter protein MyD88 which initiates a signaling cascade.<br>_x000D_ Certain DNA sequences can suppress innate immune activation and have been shown to be effective in e.g. arthritis and SLE. Suppressive synthetic ODNs prevent TLR9 activation by binding to unmethylated CpG DNA.ODN2088 was identified as one of the most potent G-stretched type inhibitor of mouse TLR9.
Product Type Proteins & Peptides
References 1. Ashman, R et al; Sequence requirements for oligodeoxyribonucleotide inhibitory activity. Int Immunology 2005, 17:411<br>_x000D_ 2. Lenert, P; Classification,Mechanisms of Action, and Therapeutic Applications of Inhibitory Oligonucleotides for Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) 7 and 9. Med of Inflam 2010
Research Area Inflammation
Size 1 mg
Species Reactivity mouse
Storage Lyophilized product should be stored at 4°C. Store stock solution in aliquots at –20°C. Repeated freeze and thaw cycles will cause loss of activity. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for one year.
Product Page Updated 2019-05-14T11:30:35.784Z

Shipping info

The delivery time for this item is approximately 5-8 business days. 
If other deviations occur, this will be noted on the order confirmation or communicated via email.
Please note, we do reserve the right to select the best packaging and shipping method in order to insure the stability of the product and allow efficient order tracking.